Confederate History & Heritage Month: Creating a "Whitemanistan" by removing American Indians

Red Eagle's surrender to Andrew Jackson following the Battle of Horshoe Bend. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia)

Step one, in creating a "Whitemanistan" in Alabama, but also across the greater South, was the systematic removal of the "red man" from the fertile lands necessary for the creation of the slave based plantation society. An excerpt from the Encyclopedia of Alabama:

(Image courtesy of Wikipedia)

The Creek Nation was once one of the largest and most powerful Indian groups in the Southeast. At their peak, the Creeks controlled millions of acres of land in the present-day states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. Much of this land, however, was lost or stolen as the federal government sought land for white settlement after the American Revolution. Creek lands were taken through cessions in treaties, through scams by land speculators, through outright theft by squatters, and also through clandestine arrangements between Creek headmen and federal agents. By 1836, most Creeks had relocated voluntarily or been forced to remove to Indian Territory, as the present-day state of Oklahoma was known at the time."

William McIntosh. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia)

"On February 12, 1825, Coweta headman William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, which ceded all the Lower Creek land in Georgia and a large tract in Alabama to the federal government. In return, McIntosh and his followers received $200,000 and land in present-day Oklahoma. Most Creeks were overwhelmingly opposed to the land cession, and the sale of land without the approval of the Creek National Council was punishable by death under Creek law. Thus, in May 1825 McIntosh was executed at one of his plantations on the Chattahoochee River.”

The article goes on to add:

“Amidst these troubles, two more voluntary emigrating parties left Alabama in 1834 and 1835. A majority of the Creeks denounced emigration, however, and refused to go west. But continued encroachment on Creek land and the land frauds associated with selling Creek reserves caused sporadic violence between Creeks and white settlers into the 1830s. These skirmishes finally erupted into war in the spring of 1836. The Second Creek War, as it came to be called, involved Creeks from the towns of Chehaw, Yuchi, and Hitchiti, among others, who attacked whites and looted and destroyed plantations in the present-day Alabama counties of Chambers, Macon, Pike, Lee, Russell, and Barbour.
The violence provided Pres. Andrew Jackson with justification for removing all the Creeks from Alabama.”

The Trail of Tears. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia)

"After capturing the Creeks who participated in the uprising, soldiers chained and marched the prisoners to Montgomery, followed in wagons by related women and children. At Montgomery, the prisoners and their families were placed on steamboats and taken by ship to Mobile and New Orleans, before being marched through Arkansas to Fort Gibson. The remaining "friendly" Creeks were rounded up into five large detachments and marched west in August and September 1836. Because of his status as perhaps the most prominent Creek Indian, the government assigned leader Opothle Yoholo to lead the initial party. As they moved west, the emigrants experienced drought, torrential rains, and extreme cold and suffered from hypothermia as they arrived at their new homes in the West."

Creek Indian Chief Opothle Yoholo. (Image courtesy of Wikipedia)

And finally:

“A sixth detachment, consisting of relatives of the warriors who had remained behind to fight alongside federal troops against the Seminoles, were told that they would be allowed to remain in east-central Alabama until the warriors' tours of duty were over. But whites harassed the Creeks as they waited in camp, and the government moved them to Mobile Point. While there, the Creeks were plagued with sickness, and many died. The government then decided to move them to Pass Christian, Mississippi, which was considered healthier. In October 1837, after the warriors returned from Florida, the entire group departed Pass Christian for New Orleans, where they boarded steamboats for the trip up the Mississippi River. During the journey, the steamboat Monmouth was cut in two by another steamboat as it ascended the Mississippi, and approximately half of the 600 Creeks aboard died in the collision."

"There was considerable research involved in this., truly the saddest painting I have ever done." Max D. Standley  (Image courtesy of

"As these events took place, the government attempted to round up the remaining Creeks who had sought refuge among the Cherokees and Chickasaws. Almost 500 Creeks found among the Cherokees were marched to Gunter's Landing (present-day Guntersville) and taken by boat to the West. Three hundred others who had escaped to Chickasaw lands traveled west in the wake of 1,000 emigrating Chickasaws.
Although Creeks continued to emigrate from Alabama in small, family-sized detachments into the 1840s and 1850s, government-sponsored removal ended officially in 1837 and 1838. Between the McIntosh party emigration in 1827 and the end of removal in 1837, more than 23,000 Creeks emigrated from the Southeast.”

1830 Land Grant signed by President Andrew Jackson. (Image courtesy of

Restoring the honor! 


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